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How To Excel
FAQ - What are absolute references in Excel?

What are absolute references in Excel?

Most formulae used in Excel spreadsheets contain references to other cells or ranges of cells. There are three types of references that can be used: Relative, Absolute or Mixed.

The type of reference is only important when you copy the formula from one cell to another.

Relative: Both the row and column references are free to change when the formula is copied to another cell.  Example: =A1

Absolute: Both the row and column references are fixed and do not change when the formula is copied to another cell.  Example: =$A$1. (Note the dollar symbol $ before both the column and row labels)

Mixed: Either the row or column reference is fixed and does not change when the formula is copied to another cell. Example of fixed column: =$A1, Example of fixed row: =A$1. (note the positioning of the dollor symbol $ in both cases)

Please see our brief guide to Absolute and Relative references


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